# Syntax

C# |
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public static void f08be( int m, int n, double[,] a, int[] jpvt, double[] tau, out int info ) |

Visual Basic |
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Public Shared Sub f08be ( _ m As Integer, _ n As Integer, _ a As Double(,), _ jpvt As Integer(), _ tau As Double(), _ <OutAttribute> ByRef info As Integer _ ) |

Visual C++ |
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public: static void f08be( int m, int n, array<double,2>^ a, array<int>^ jpvt, array<double>^ tau, [OutAttribute] int% info ) |

F# |
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static member f08be : m : int * n : int * a : float[,] * jpvt : int[] * tau : float[] * info : int byref -> unit |

#### Parameters

- m
- Type: System..::..Int32
*On entry*: $m$, the number of rows of the matrix $A$.*Constraint*: ${\mathbf{m}}\ge 0$.

- n
- Type: System..::..Int32
*On entry*: $n$, the number of columns of the matrix $A$.*Constraint*: ${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.

- a
- Type: array<System..::..Double,2>[,](,)[,][,]An array of size [dim1, dim2]
**Note:**dim1 must satisfy the constraint: $\mathrm{dim1}\ge \mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{m}}\right)$**Note:**the second dimension of the array a must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.*On entry*: the $m$ by $n$ matrix $A$.*On exit*: if $m\ge n$, the elements below the diagonal are overwritten by details of the orthogonal matrix $Q$ and the upper triangle is overwritten by the corresponding elements of the $n$ by $n$ upper triangular matrix $R$.If $m<n$, the strictly lower triangular part is overwritten by details of the orthogonal matrix $Q$ and the remaining elements are overwritten by the corresponding elements of the $m$ by $n$ upper trapezoidal matrix $R$.

- jpvt
- Type: array<System..::..Int32>[]()[][]An array of size [dim1]
**Note:**the dimension of the array jpvt must be at least $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(1,{\mathbf{n}}\right)$.*On entry*: if ${\mathbf{jpvt}}\left[i-1\right]\ne 0$, then the $i$ th column of $A$ is moved to the beginning of $AP$ before the decomposition is computed and is fixed in place during the computation. Otherwise, the $i$ th column of $A$ is a free column (i.e., one which may be interchanged during the computation with any other free column).*On exit*: details of the permutation matrix $P$. More precisely, if ${\mathbf{jpvt}}\left[i-1\right]=k$, then the $k$th column of $A$ is moved to become the $i$ th column of $AP$; in other words, the columns of $AP$ are the columns of $A$ in the order ${\mathbf{jpvt}}\left[0\right],{\mathbf{jpvt}}\left[1\right],\dots ,{\mathbf{jpvt}}\left[n-1\right]$.

- tau
- Type: array<System..::..Double>[]()[][]An array of size [$\mathrm{min}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left({\mathbf{m}},{\mathbf{n}}\right)$]
*On exit*: further details of the orthogonal matrix $Q$.

- info
- Type: System..::..Int32%
*On exit*: ${\mathbf{info}}=0$ unless the method detects an error (see [Error Indicators and Warnings]).

# Description

f08be forms the $QR$ factorization, with column pivoting, of an arbitrary rectangular real $m$ by $n$ matrix.

If $m\ge n$, the factorization is given by:

where $R$ is an $n$ by $n$ upper triangular matrix, $Q$ is an $m$ by $m$ orthogonal matrix and $P$ is an $n$ by $n$ permutation matrix. It is sometimes more convenient to write the factorization as

which reduces to

where ${Q}_{1}$ consists of the first $n$ columns of $Q$, and ${Q}_{2}$ the remaining $m-n$ columns.

$$AP=Q\left(\begin{array}{r}R\\ 0\end{array}\right)\text{,}$$ |

$$AP=\left(\begin{array}{rr}{Q}_{1}& {Q}_{2}\end{array}\right)\left(\begin{array}{r}R\\ 0\end{array}\right)\text{,}$$ |

$$AP={Q}_{1}R\text{,}$$ |

If $m<n$, $R$ is trapezoidal, and the factorization can be written

where ${R}_{1}$ is upper triangular and ${R}_{2}$ is rectangular.

$$AP=Q\left(\begin{array}{rr}{R}_{1}& {R}_{2}\end{array}\right)\text{,}$$ |

The matrix $Q$ is not formed explicitly but is represented as a product of $\mathrm{min}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left(m,n\right)$ elementary reflectors (see the

**F08**class for details). Methods are provided to work with $Q$ in this representation (see [Further Comments]).Note also that for any $k<n$, the information returned in the first $k$ columns of the array a represents a $QR$ factorization of the first $k$ columns of the permuted matrix $AP$.

The method allows specified columns of $A$ to be moved to the leading columns of $AP$ at the start of the factorization and fixed there. The remaining columns are free to be interchanged so that at the $i$th stage the pivot column is chosen to be the column which maximizes the $2$-norm of elements $i$ to $m$ over columns $i$ to $n$.

# References

Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996)

*Matrix Computations*(3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore# Error Indicators and Warnings

Some error messages may refer to parameters that are dropped from this interface
(LDA) In these
cases, an error in another parameter has usually caused an incorrect value to be inferred.

- ${\mathbf{info}}<0$
- If ${\mathbf{info}}=-i$, argument $i$ had an illegal value. An explanatory message is output, and execution of the program is terminated.

- ${\mathbf{ifail}}=-9000$
- An error occured, see message report.
- ${\mathbf{ifail}}=-6000$
- Invalid Parameters $\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$
- ${\mathbf{ifail}}=-4000$
- Invalid dimension for array $\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$
- ${\mathbf{ifail}}=-8000$
- Negative dimension for array $\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$
- ${\mathbf{ifail}}=-6000$
- Invalid Parameters $\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$
- ${\mathbf{ifail}}=-6000$
- Invalid Parameters $\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$

# Accuracy

The computed factorization is the exact factorization of a nearby matrix $\left(A+E\right)$, where

and $\epsilon $ is the machine precision.

$${\Vert E\Vert}_{2}=\mathit{O}\left(\epsilon \right){\Vert A\Vert}_{2}\text{,}$$ |

# Parallelism and Performance

None.

# Further Comments

The total number of floating-point operations is approximately $\frac{2}{3}{n}^{2}\left(3m-n\right)$ if $m\ge n$ or $\frac{2}{3}{m}^{2}\left(3n-m\right)$ if $m<n$.

To form the orthogonal matrix $Q$ f08be may be followed by a call to (F08AFF not in this release):
but note that the second dimension of the array a must be at least m, which may be larger than was required by f08be.

When $m\ge n$, it is often only the first $n$ columns of $Q$ that are required, and they may be formed by the call:

To apply $Q$ to an arbitrary real rectangular matrix $C$, f08be may be followed by a call to f08ag. For example,
forms $C={Q}^{\mathrm{T}}C$, where $C$ is $m$ by $p$.

To compute a $QR$ factorization without column pivoting, use (F08AEF not in this release).

The complex analogue of this method is (F08BSF not in this release).