NAG Library Routine Document

f01fdf (complex_herm_matrix_exp)


    1  Purpose
    7  Accuracy


f01fdf computes the matrix exponential, eA, of a complex Hermitian n by n matrix A.


Fortran Interface
Subroutine f01fdf ( uplo, n, a, lda, ifail)
Integer, Intent (In):: n, lda
Integer, Intent (Inout):: ifail
Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout):: a(lda,*)
Character (1), Intent (In):: uplo
C Header Interface
#include nagmk26.h
void  f01fdf_ (const char *uplo, const Integer *n, Complex a[], const Integer *lda, Integer *ifail, const Charlen length_uplo)


eA is computed using a spectral factorization of A 
A = Q D QH ,  
where D is the diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements, di, are the eigenvalues of A, and Q is a unitary matrix whose columns are the eigenvectors of A. eA is then given by
eA = Q eD QH ,  
where eD is the diagonal matrix whose ith diagonal element is edi. See for example Section 4.5 of Higham (2008).


Higham N J (2005) The scaling and squaring method for the matrix exponential revisited SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 26(4) 1179–1193
Higham N J (2008) Functions of Matrices: Theory and Computation SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Moler C B and Van Loan C F (2003) Nineteen dubious ways to compute the exponential of a matrix, twenty-five years later SIAM Rev. 45 3–49


1:     uplo – Character(1)Input
On entry: if uplo='U', the upper triangle of the matrix A is stored.
If uplo='L', the lower triangle of the matrix A is stored.
Constraint: uplo='U' or 'L'.
2:     n – IntegerInput
On entry: n, the order of the matrix A.
Constraint: n0.
3:     alda* – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array a must be at least n.
On entry: the n by n Hermitian matrix A.
  • If uplo='U', the upper triangular part of A must be stored and the elements of the array below the diagonal are not referenced.
  • If uplo='L', the lower triangular part of A must be stored and the elements of the array above the diagonal are not referenced.
On exit: if ifail=0, the upper or lower triangular part of the n by n matrix exponential, eA.
4:     lda – IntegerInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array a as declared in the (sub)program from which f01fdf is called.
Constraint: ldan.
5:     ifail – IntegerInput/Output
On entry: ifail must be set to 0, -1​ or ​1. If you are unfamiliar with this argument you should refer to Section 3.4 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for details.
For environments where it might be inappropriate to halt program execution when an error is detected, the value -1​ or ​1 is recommended. If the output of error messages is undesirable, then the value 1 is recommended. Otherwise, if you are not familiar with this argument, the recommended value is 0. When the value -1​ or ​1 is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit: ifail=0 unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see Section 6).

Error Indicators and Warnings

If on entry ifail=0 or -1, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
The computation of the spectral factorization failed to converge.
On entry, uplo was invalid.
On entry, n=value.
Constraint: n0.
An internal error occurred when computing the spectral factorization. Please contact NAG.
On entry, lda=value and n=value.
Constraint: ldan.
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please contact NAG.
See Section 3.9 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See Section 3.8 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.


For an Hermitian matrix A, the matrix eA, has the relative condition number
κA = A2 ,  
which is the minimal possible for the matrix exponential and so the computed matrix exponential is guaranteed to be close to the exact matrix. See Section 10.2 of Higham (2008) for details and further discussion.

Parallelism and Performance

f01fdf is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
f01fdf makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementation-specific information.

Further Comments

The integer allocatable memory required is n, the real allocatable memory required is n and the complex allocatable memory required is approximately n+nb+1×n, where nb is the block size required by f08fnf (zheev).
The cost of the algorithm is On3.
As well as the excellent book cited above, the classic reference for the computation of the matrix exponential is Moler and Van Loan (2003).


This example finds the matrix exponential of the Hermitian matrix
A = 1 2+2i 3+2i 4+3i 2-2i 1 2+2i 3+2i 3-2i 2-2i 1 2+2i 4-3i 3-2i 2-2i 1 .  

Program Text

Program Text (f01fdfe.f90)

Program Data

Program Data (f01fdfe.d)

Program Results

Program Results (f01fdfe.r)

© The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2017