NAG Library Routine Document
C06FKF
1 Purpose
C06FKF calculates the circular convolution or correlation of two real vectors of period $n$ (using a work array for extra speed).
2 Specification
INTEGER 
JOB, N, IFAIL 
REAL (KIND=nag_wp) 
X(N), Y(N), WORK(N) 

3 Description
C06FKF computes:
 if ${\mathbf{JOB}}=1$, the discrete convolution of $x$ and $y$, defined by
 if ${\mathbf{JOB}}=2$, the discrete correlation of $x$ and $y$ defined by
Here $x$ and $y$ are real vectors, assumed to be periodic, with period $n$, i.e., ${x}_{j}={x}_{j\pm n}={x}_{j\pm 2n}=\dots \text{}$; $z$ and $w$ are then also periodic with period $n$.
Note: this usage of the terms ‘convolution’ and ‘correlation’ is taken from
Brigham (1974). The term ‘convolution’ is sometimes used to denote both these computations.
If
$\hat{x}$,
$\hat{y}$,
$\hat{z}$ and
$\hat{w}$ are the discrete Fourier transforms of these sequences, i.e.,
then
${\hat{z}}_{k}=\sqrt{n}.{\hat{x}}_{k}{\hat{y}}_{k}$ and
${\hat{w}}_{k}=\sqrt{n}.{\stackrel{}{\hat{x}}}_{k}{\hat{y}}_{k}$ (the bar denoting complex conjugate).
This routine calls the same auxiliary routines as
C06PAF to compute discrete Fourier transforms.
4 References
Brigham E O (1974) The Fast Fourier Transform Prentice–Hall
5 Arguments
 1: $\mathrm{JOB}$ – INTEGERInput

On entry: the computation to be performed.
 ${\mathbf{JOB}}=1$
 ${z}_{k}={\displaystyle \sum _{j=0}^{n1}}{x}_{j}{y}_{kj}$ (convolution);
 ${\mathbf{JOB}}=2$
 ${w}_{k}={\displaystyle \sum _{j=0}^{n1}}{x}_{j}{y}_{k+j}$ (correlation).
Constraint:
${\mathbf{JOB}}=1$ or $2$.
 2: $\mathrm{X}\left({\mathbf{N}}\right)$ – REAL (KIND=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output

On entry: the elements of one period of the vector
$x$. If
X is declared with bounds
$\left(0:{\mathbf{N}}1\right)$ in the subroutine from which C06FKF is called, then
${\mathbf{X}}\left(\mathit{j}\right)$ must contain
${x}_{\mathit{j}}$, for
$\mathit{j}=0,1,\dots ,n1$.
On exit: the corresponding elements of the discrete convolution or correlation.
 3: $\mathrm{Y}\left({\mathbf{N}}\right)$ – REAL (KIND=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output

On entry: the elements of one period of the vector
$y$. If
Y is declared with bounds
$\left(0:{\mathbf{N}}1\right)$ in the subroutine from which C06FKF is called, then
${\mathbf{Y}}\left(\mathit{j}\right)$ must contain
${y}_{\mathit{j}}$, for
$\mathit{j}=0,1,\dots ,n1$.
On exit: the discrete Fourier transform of the convolution or correlation returned in the array
X; the transform is stored in Hermitian form; if the components of the transform
${z}_{k}$ are written as
${a}_{k}+i{b}_{k}$, then for
$0\le k\le n/2$,
${a}_{k}$ is contained in
${\mathbf{Y}}\left(k\right)$, and for
$1\le k\le n/21$,
${b}_{k}$ is contained in
${\mathbf{Y}}\left(nk\right)$. (See also
Section 2.1.2 in the C06 Chapter Introduction.)
 4: $\mathrm{N}$ – INTEGERInput

On entry:
$n$, the number of values in one period of the vectors
X and
Y.
Constraint:
${\mathbf{N}}>1$.
 5: $\mathrm{WORK}\left({\mathbf{N}}\right)$ – REAL (KIND=nag_wp) arrayWorkspace

 6: $\mathrm{IFAIL}$ – INTEGERInput/Output

On entry:
IFAIL must be set to
$0$,
$1\text{ or}1$. If you are unfamiliar with this argument you should refer to
Section 3.4 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for details.
For environments where it might be inappropriate to halt program execution when an error is detected, the value
$1\text{ or}1$ is recommended. If the output of error messages is undesirable, then the value
$1$ is recommended. Otherwise, if you are not familiar with this argument, the recommended value is
$0$.
When the value $\mathbf{1}\text{ or}\mathbf{1}$ is used it is essential to test the value of IFAIL on exit.
On exit:
${\mathbf{IFAIL}}={\mathbf{0}}$ unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see
Section 6).
6 Error Indicators and Warnings
If on entry
${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=0$ or
$1$, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by
X04AAF).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
 ${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=3$

On entry,  ${\mathbf{N}}\le 1$. 
 ${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=4$

On entry,  ${\mathbf{JOB}}\ne 1$ or $2$. 
 ${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=99$
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please
contact
NAG.
See
Section 3.9 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
 ${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=399$
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See
Section 3.8 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
 ${\mathbf{IFAIL}}=999$
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See
Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
7 Accuracy
The results should be accurate to within a small multiple of the machine precision.
8 Parallelism and Performance
C06FKF is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library.
C06FKF makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the
X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the
Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementationspecific information.
The time taken is approximately proportional to $n\times \mathrm{log}\left(n\right)$, but also depends on the factorization of $n$. C06FKF is faster if the only prime factors of $n$ are $2$, $3$ or $5$; and fastest of all if $n$ is a power of $2$.
10 Example
This example reads in the elements of one period of two real vectors $x$ and $y$, and prints their discrete convolution and correlation (as computed by C06FKF). In realistic computations the number of data values would be much larger.
10.1 Program Text
Program Text (c06fkfe.f90)
10.2 Program Data
Program Data (c06fkfe.d)
10.3 Program Results
Program Results (c06fkfe.r)