NAG Library Routine Document
f01jcf (real_gen_matrix_cond_usd)
1
Purpose
f01jcf computes an estimate of the absolute condition number of a matrix function $f$ at a real $n$ by $n$ matrix $A$ in the $1$norm, using analytical derivatives of $f$ you have supplied.
2
Specification
Fortran Interface
Subroutine f01jcf ( 
n, a, lda, f, iuser, ruser, iflag, conda, norma, normfa, ifail) 
Integer, Intent (In)  ::  n, lda  Integer, Intent (Inout)  ::  iuser(*), ifail  Integer, Intent (Out)  ::  iflag  Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout)  ::  a(lda,*), ruser(*)  Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Out)  ::  conda, norma, normfa  External  ::  f 

C Header Interface
#include nagmk26.h
void 
f01jcf_ (const Integer *n, double a[], const Integer *lda, void (NAG_CALL *f)(const Integer *m, Integer *iflag, const Integer *nz, const Complex z[], Complex fz[], Integer iuser[], double ruser[]), Integer iuser[], double ruser[], Integer *iflag, double *conda, double *norma, double *normfa, Integer *ifail) 

3
Description
The absolute condition number of
$f$ at
$A$,
${\mathrm{cond}}_{\mathrm{abs}}\left(f,A\right)$ is given by the norm of the Fréchet derivative of
$f$,
$L\left(A\right)$, which is defined by
where
$L\left(X,E\right)$ is the Fréchet derivative in the direction
$E$.
$L\left(X,E\right)$ is linear in
$E$ and can therefore be written as
where the
$\mathrm{vec}$ operator stacks the columns of a matrix into one vector, so that
$K\left(X\right)$ is
${n}^{2}\times {n}^{2}$.
f01jcf computes an estimate
$\gamma $ such that
$\gamma \le {\Vert K\left(X\right)\Vert}_{1}$, where
${\Vert K\left(X\right)\Vert}_{1}\in \left[{n}^{1}{\Vert L\left(X\right)\Vert}_{1},n{\Vert L\left(X\right)\Vert}_{1}\right]$. The relative condition number can then be computed via
The algorithm used to find
$\gamma $ is detailed in Section 3.4 of
Higham (2008).
The function
$f$, and the derivatives of
$f$, are returned by subroutine
f which, given an integer
$m$, evaluates
${f}^{\left(m\right)}\left({z}_{\mathit{i}}\right)$ at a number of (generally complex) points
${z}_{\mathit{i}}$, for
$\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{z}$. For any
$z$ on the real line,
$f\left(z\right)$ must also be real.
f01jcf is therefore appropriate for routines that can be evaluated on the complex plane and whose derivatives, of arbitrary order, can also be evaluated on the complex plane.
4
References
Higham N J (2008) Functions of Matrices: Theory and Computation SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, USA
5
Arguments
 1: $\mathbf{n}$ – IntegerInput

On entry: $n$, the order of the matrix $A$.
Constraint:
${\mathbf{n}}\ge 0$.
 2: $\mathbf{a}\left({\mathbf{lda}},*\right)$ – Real (Kind=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output

Note: the second dimension of the array
a
must be at least
${\mathbf{n}}$.
On entry: the $n$ by $n$ matrix $A$.
On exit: the $n$ by $n$ matrix, $f\left(A\right)$.
 3: $\mathbf{lda}$ – IntegerInput

On entry: the first dimension of the array
a as declared in the (sub)program from which
f01jcf is called.
Constraint:
${\mathbf{lda}}\ge {\mathbf{n}}$.
 4: $\mathbf{f}$ – Subroutine, supplied by the user.External Procedure

Given an integer
$m$, the subroutine
f evaluates
${f}^{\left(m\right)}\left({z}_{i}\right)$ at a number of points
${z}_{i}$.
The specification of
f is:
Fortran Interface
Integer, Intent (In)  ::  m, nz  Integer, Intent (Inout)  ::  iflag, iuser(*)  Real (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Inout)  ::  ruser(*)  Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (In)  ::  z(nz)  Complex (Kind=nag_wp), Intent (Out)  ::  fz(nz) 

C Header Interface
#include nagmk26.h
void 
f (const Integer *m, Integer *iflag, const Integer *nz, const Complex z[], Complex fz[], Integer iuser[], double ruser[]) 

 1: $\mathbf{m}$ – IntegerInput

On entry: the order,
$m$, of the derivative required.
If ${\mathbf{m}}=0$, $f\left({z}_{i}\right)$ should be returned. For ${\mathbf{m}}>0$, ${f}^{\left(m\right)}\left({z}_{i}\right)$ should be returned.
 2: $\mathbf{iflag}$ – IntegerInput/Output

On entry:
iflag will be zero.
On exit:
iflag should either be unchanged from its entry value of zero, or may be set nonzero to indicate that there is a problem in evaluating the function
$f\left(z\right)$; for instance
$f\left(z\right)$ may not be defined. If
iflag is returned as nonzero then
f01jcf will terminate the computation, with
${\mathbf{ifail}}={\mathbf{3}}$.
 3: $\mathbf{nz}$ – IntegerInput

On entry: ${n}_{z}$, the number of function or derivative values required.
 4: $\mathbf{z}\left({\mathbf{nz}}\right)$ – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayInput

On entry: the ${n}_{z}$ points ${z}_{1},{z}_{2},\dots ,{z}_{{n}_{z}}$ at which the function $f$ is to be evaluated.
 5: $\mathbf{fz}\left({\mathbf{nz}}\right)$ – Complex (Kind=nag_wp) arrayOutput

On exit: the ${n}_{z}$ function or derivative values.
${\mathbf{fz}}\left(\mathit{i}\right)$ should return the value ${f}^{\left(m\right)}\left({z}_{\mathit{i}}\right)$, for $\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{n}_{z}$. If ${z}_{i}$ lies on the real line, then so must ${f}^{\left(m\right)}\left({z}_{i}\right)$.
 6: $\mathbf{iuser}\left(*\right)$ – Integer arrayUser Workspace
 7: $\mathbf{ruser}\left(*\right)$ – Real (Kind=nag_wp) arrayUser Workspace

f is called with the arguments
iuser and
ruser as supplied to
f01jcf. You should use the arrays
iuser and
ruser to supply information to
f.
f must either be a module subprogram USEd by, or declared as EXTERNAL in, the (sub)program from which
f01jcf is called. Arguments denoted as
Input must
not be changed by this procedure.
Note: f should not return floatingpoint NaN (Not a Number) or infinity values, since these are not handled by
f01jcf. If your code inadvertently
does return any NaNs or infinities,
f01jcf is likely to produce unexpected results.
 5: $\mathbf{iuser}\left(*\right)$ – Integer arrayUser Workspace
 6: $\mathbf{ruser}\left(*\right)$ – Real (Kind=nag_wp) arrayUser Workspace

iuser and
ruser are not used by
f01jcf, but are passed directly to
f and may be used to pass information to this routine.
 7: $\mathbf{iflag}$ – IntegerOutput

On exit:
${\mathbf{iflag}}=0$, unless
iflag has been set nonzero inside
f, in which case
iflag will be the value set and
ifail will be set to
${\mathbf{ifail}}={\mathbf{3}}$.
 8: $\mathbf{conda}$ – Real (Kind=nag_wp)Output

On exit: an estimate of the absolute condition number of $f$ at $A$.
 9: $\mathbf{norma}$ – Real (Kind=nag_wp)Output

On exit: the $1$norm of $A$.
 10: $\mathbf{normfa}$ – Real (Kind=nag_wp)Output

On exit: the $1$norm of $f\left(A\right)$.
 11: $\mathbf{ifail}$ – IntegerInput/Output

On entry:
ifail must be set to
$0$,
$1\text{ or}1$. If you are unfamiliar with this argument you should refer to
Section 3.4 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for details.
For environments where it might be inappropriate to halt program execution when an error is detected, the value
$1\text{ or}1$ is recommended. If the output of error messages is undesirable, then the value
$1$ is recommended. Otherwise, if you are not familiar with this argument, the recommended value is
$0$.
When the value $\mathbf{1}\text{ or}\mathbf{1}$ is used it is essential to test the value of ifail on exit.
On exit:
${\mathbf{ifail}}={\mathbf{0}}$ unless the routine detects an error or a warning has been flagged (see
Section 6).
6
Error Indicators and Warnings
If on entry
${\mathbf{ifail}}=0$ or
$1$, explanatory error messages are output on the current error message unit (as defined by
x04aaf).
Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=1$

An internal error occurred when estimating the norm of the Fréchet derivative of
$f$ at
$A$. Please contact
NAG.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=2$

An internal error occurred when evaluating the matrix function
$f\left(A\right)$. You can investigate further by calling
f01emf with the matrix
$A$ and the function
$f$.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=3$

iflag has been set nonzero by the usersupplied subroutine.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=1$

On entry, ${\mathbf{n}}<0$.
Input argument number $\u2329\mathit{\text{value}}\u232a$ is invalid.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=3$

On entry, argument
lda is invalid.
Constraint:
${\mathbf{lda}}\ge {\mathbf{n}}$.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=99$
An unexpected error has been triggered by this routine. Please
contact
NAG.
See
Section 3.9 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=399$
Your licence key may have expired or may not have been installed correctly.
See
Section 3.8 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
 ${\mathbf{ifail}}=999$
Dynamic memory allocation failed.
See
Section 3.7 in How to Use the NAG Library and its Documentation for further information.
7
Accuracy
f01jcf uses the norm estimation routine
f04ydf to estimate a quantity
$\gamma $, where
$\gamma \le {\Vert K\left(X\right)\Vert}_{1}$ and
${\Vert K\left(X\right)\Vert}_{1}\in \left[{n}^{1}{\Vert L\left(X\right)\Vert}_{1},n{\Vert L\left(X\right)\Vert}_{1}\right]$. For further details on the accuracy of norm estimation, see the documentation for
f04ydf.
8
Parallelism and Performance
f01jcf is threaded by NAG for parallel execution in multithreaded implementations of the NAG Library. In these implementations, this routine may make calls to the usersupplied functions from within an OpenMP parallel region. Thus OpenMP directives within the user functions can only be used if you are compiling the usersupplied function and linking the executable in accordance with the instructions in the
Users' Note for your implementation. The user workspace arrays
iuser and
ruser are classified as OpenMP shared memory and use of
iuser and
ruser has to take account of this in order to preserve thread safety whenever information is written back to either of these arrays. If at all possible, it is recommended that these arrays are only used to supply readonly data to the user functions when a multithreaded implementation is being used.
f01jcf makes calls to BLAS and/or LAPACK routines, which may be threaded within the vendor library used by this implementation. Consult the documentation for the vendor library for further information.
Please consult the
X06 Chapter Introduction for information on how to control and interrogate the OpenMP environment used within this routine. Please also consult the
Users' Note for your implementation for any additional implementationspecific information.
The matrix function is computed using the underlying matrix function routine
f01emf. Approximately
$6{n}^{2}$ of real allocatable memory is required by the routine, in addition to the memory used by the underlying matrix function routine.
If only $f\left(A\right)$ is required, without an estimate of the condition number, then it is far more efficient to use the underlying matrix function routine directly.
The complex analogue of this routine is
f01kcf.
10
Example
This example estimates the absolute and relative condition numbers of the matrix function
${e}^{2A}$ where
10.1
Program Text
Program Text (f01jcfe.f90)
10.2
Program Data
Program Data (f01jcfe.d)
10.3
Program Results
Program Results (f01jcfe.r)